Flailing and winnowing are strenuous tasks. Using a flail, one person could separate probably only seven bushels of grain per day. Separating kernels of grain from chaff and stalks was a labor-intensive manual procedure, and careful attention was required to extract the maximum amount of good grain from the material left on the threshing floor after flailing and trampling.
Placer Gold is the gold nugget you (if you’re lucky enough) find on the surface (i.e. “free” from the host rock.) Lode Gold is found inside a rock (aka: vein, quartz or collectively often known as "hard rock mining” which for the most part was underground. This gadget was critical to processing lode gold.
As the area ranching families will tell you, fences reshaped the West and were sometimes at the heart of disputes between ranchers and farmers as they carved out their property boundaries and their destinies. This still remains an issue today! This machine was a game changer!
Invented around 1840-41 by William Crosskill of Beverley, Yorkshire, England this contraption consists of a height-adjustable levelling bar fitting with blunt spikes made of special long-lasting steel for dragging over newly plowed land to render it fit for seeding. The device enabled farmers to achieve large costs reduction in the soil preparation at low consumption of tractive power.